Quotes from Gay Researchers LeVay and Hamer which support environmental causation
This nonexperimental quantitative study of 70 participants explored how father involvement during their gay sons’ childhood and adolescence was impacted by their levels of father-role confidence (FRC) and past father involvement experiences (PFIE). As hypothesized, the results indicated that participants’ past involvement with their fathers, and reported levels of father-role confidence, predicted father-gay son involvement (FGSI). Participants in this study predominately exhibited indirect, non-nurturing, or low-engagement types of father involvement activities with their gay sons rather than direct, nurturing, or high-engagement activities. Implications from the results of this study may be used to inform existing therapeutic approaches for fathers of gay sons, increase father-gay son engagement, and promote relationship reconciliation efforts between adult gay men and their fathers.
Keywords: gay sons, father involvement, parents, sexual minority, homosexuality
Same-Sex Parenting Research: A Critical Assessment is authored by Walter R. Schumm, Ph.D., professor in the Kansas State University School of Family Studies and Human Services. Dr. Schumm has conducted research on gender identity, sexual identity, sexual attraction, and same-sex relationships and parenting since 1999. He has published 39 scholarly articles on GLBT topics (cf. Appendix A in Schumm’s book for a list). In Same-Sex Parenting Research, Schumm masterfully accomplishes three goals. First, Schumm explains how quality, ethical research is done. Second, Schumm reviews what social science research to date does—and does not—tell us about same-sex parenting (SSP). Finally, he examines and critiques the use of social science research concerning SSP in society.