The Importance of Twin Studies (Refs)
This first person narrative chronicles my story as a graduate student in a clinical psychology program in the mid-Atlantic United States, who faced discrimination from the school for my support and involvement in therapeutic help for individuals with unwanted same-sex attraction. I had provided lay counseling to same-sex attracted men for several years prior to beginning my graduate school training. Though I had been transparent about my experiences throughout my academic career and received no complaints from my internship site or clients, near the completion of my degree the administration suspended and then dismissed me for my views. I recount the tactics and arguments my opponents used, how I obtained support and resisted the discrimination, and offer insights for aspiring students, counselors, and other interested parties.
There is increasing public and professional debate over the normality and treatability of male homosexuality. This warrants a return to the earliest professional understandings of the condition, i.e., the origins of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. While gay-affirmative theorists dismiss early psychoanalytic theory regarding the nature and causes of homosexuality, this perspective continues to offer a foundation for understanding same-sex attractions and for the application of effective therapeutic interventions. While often unclear about his views on homosexuality, in three primary and other peripheral writings, Freud depicts his diverse, perhaps ambivalent, views on the phenomenon. These views are summarized in seven categories: 1. The Reality of Reproduction. 2. The Theory of Universal Bisexuality. 3. Psychosexual Immaturity. 4. Homosexuality and Narcissism. 5. Reparative Concept. 6. Therapeutic Pessimism. 7. Homosexuality as “Perversion.” Working within the limited theoretical framework of the Oedipus Complex, Freud offered basic observations and fundamental principles which modern psychodynamic-oriented theories and therapies continue to develop.