New Evidence for Biological Influence on Gender (Refs)

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Gender Theory Flaws

Gender theory developed within the feministic and LGTB field of studies in the 1970s, and was later accepted by other disciplines within the arts and social sciences. Today it is studied as an interdisciplinary science. Gender theory has developed a system of values from which it follows that sex as a biological determinant does not have a major influence on gender; moreover, it is created through the process of socialization and culturation, often due to pressure from a patriarchal society. Thus, gender is a social construct, not a biological condition. This paper provides a critical analysis of gender theory, and it demonstrates that gender theory has no foundation in empirical science, which is an unavoidable factor in the research of human sexuality.

Prenatal Hormones Are Only a Minor Contributor to Male Brain Structure in Humans

The work of Phoenix, Goy, Gerall, & Young (1959) as well as later supporting research has been taken as evidence that the male brain is prenatally masculinized by testosterone but only activated to full heterosexual orientation at puberty. This conclusion was based on experiments in which testosterone was injected into pregnant guinea pigs and the female offspring subsequently examined. It has been widely assumed, though perhaps mistakenly, that a prenatal testosterone surge is also the major cause of male sexual orientation in humans. Subsequent research—including studies of the congenital adrenal syndrome (CAS) in girls—has shown multiple influences from a variety of sources on animal/human adult heterosexual orientation and brain structure, making such a theory too simplistic.