Gender theory developed within the feministic and LGTB field of studies in the 1970s, and was later accepted by other disciplines within the arts and social sciences. Today it is studied as an interdisciplinary science. Gender theory has developed a system of values from which it follows that sex as a biological determinant does not have a major influence on gender; moreover, it is created through the process of socialization and culturation, often due to pressure from a patriarchal society. Thus, gender is a social construct, not a biological condition. This paper provides a critical analysis of gender theory, and it demonstrates that gender theory has no foundation in empirical science, which is an unavoidable factor in the research of human sexuality.
Letters to the Editor
In the discussion that follows, I consider both homosexuality and transsexualism from a psychodynamic point of view. Transsexualism has been one of the least explored areas of the human personality. The most prominent current hypothesis suggests that the male-to-female transsexual acquires a gender identity through a non-conflictual process of learning (Stoller, 1975) By contrast, I have suggested that transsexualism in both genders has a similar aetiology, and that the condition stems from unresolved childhood trauma. Radical disidentification from the parent of the same sex results in a psychodynamic structure of same-sex ambivalence: there is a defensive detachment from the same-sex love-source and a reparative striving for a restored attachment. This same dynamic is involved in homosexuality, but in varying degree. At one extreme there is little to distinguish homosexuality from transsexualism, in that both are based on radical disidentification, whether or not this manifests itself in the form of an apparent cross-gender awareness. More commonly, homosexuality is marked by a lesser degree of same-sex ambivalence. However, the essential dynamic is the same in all cases, and thus the difference between these conditions is one of degree rather than of kind. The defensive detachment from the same-sex love-source implies that the process of same-sex identification is still to some extent incomplete, whether radically or only partially so. On this understanding, homosexuality itself becomes a problem of gender identity.
France French Academie National de Medecine 2022-2-25 Communique Medecine Translation and Notarized from Brooks
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